Pregnancy is a feeling that spreads happiness in everyone’s life. Pregnancies like molar pregnancy are not the ones that give pleasure. It is an abnormal pregnancy caused due to an imbalance in chromosomes. It can occur when an egg with no genetic information gets fertilized by a sperm (a complete one), or when a normal egg gets fertilized by two sperms (a partial one).
Gestational trophoblastic disease or (GTD) is a rare tumor that grows in the uterus. It appears when the cells in the womb increase rapidly and uncontrollably. The trophoblasts are the cells that come from the tissue that form placenta during pregnancy. Instead of forming placenta it grows an abnormally clustered mass.
The presence of hydatidiform mole can characterize this type of pregnancy. Hydatidiform moles are a cluster of fluid-filled sacs that took birth in the uterus due to a decline in chronic tissue around an aborting embryo. In simple words, it is a tumor forming a mass of cysts which resembles a bunch of grapes in the uterus.
Symptoms of this type of pregnancy:
Generally, molar pregnancies do not have specific symptoms but, excessive production of Human Chronic Gonadotropin (HCG) which is a hormone produced by the placenta during pregnancy can be visible. A high level of HCG is seen, in this type of pregnancy.
1) In the fourth or fifth month with traces of painless vaginal bleeding occur. Some women may feel their uterus becoming abnormally large and the ovaries enlarging.
2) There might be cases of abnormal vomiting also. Excessive vomiting can be the cause of hyperemesis. It causes severe nausea, vomiting or even unexpected weight loss.
3) The tests might imply an increase in blood pressure and the increase in protein levels in the urine.
4) The absence in the movement of the fetus and no signs of a heartbeat.
There is no specific cause of such pregnancies. It may be due to deficiency of protein, folic acid, and carotene in the diet, defective egg, abnormality in the uterus or a deficiency in the nutrient intake. A woman who has a history of this type of pregnancy may have a high chance of re-developing it.
Although, such pregnancies are not cancerous in the beginning, yet they can be life-threatening if not removed from the body. A complete pregnancy which is molar can be malignant. A tumor can be removed by several procedures to avoid further fatal complications.
1) Chemotherapy: Chemotherapy is one of the processes that can be considered to cure the tumor. It will kill the cells that are growing at a fast rate, to avoid the further formation of any clustered cell.
2)Dilation and Curettage: It is a minor surgical procedure that removes the clustered moles out. It is done under general anesthesia.
A molar pregnancy can affect more than one million people each year and can occur more often in women in their twenties and women above 35. It can be cured with proper medication and surgery, initiated on time.